WordPress fixed three safety defects almost a week ago.
Penetration Testing RESTful Web Services
However, only just recently did the organization address the unknown 0day exploits that allowed unauthorized hackers to edit and alter the content of a page or any article within a WordPress website. Two major bugs were found allowing hackers Remote privilege escalation and Content injection. The vulnerabilities are simple to manipulate, they affect versions 4. The security staff at WordPress managed to fix the problems within the API, and then immediately delivered a patch for everyone who has the CMS installed on their websites.
Top 5 REST API Security Guidelines
However, no details or factual information were revealed about the vulnerabilities when the patch was deployed to keep hackers from taking advantage of the situation and exploiting websites with the 0day before web administrators around the world could path their WordPress websites.
This is what a core WordPress contributor, Aaron Campbell, had to say about the delay in the disclosure of the bugs:. Data from all four WAFs and WordPress hosts showed no indication that the vulnerability had been exploited in the wild.
As a result, we made the decision to delay disclosure of this particular issue to give time for automatic updates to run and ensure as many users as possible were protected before the issue was made public.
The exploit itself has been posted to Pastebin for any of you who would want to pen-test your WordPress website for the vulnerability and see how the exploit works. It is advised that for those who have WordPress versions 4. A security analyst and technical writer at The Hack Post.
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Simple, schematic, faster to develop, and quick deployments make APIs so popular and widely used.
So, naturally, it brings various challenges to maintain its implementations and keep them secured from various threats, such as Man-in-the-Middle attacks, lack of XML encryptions, insecure endpoints, API URL parameters, and so on.
Personal information, credit card information, health records, financial information, business information, and many other categories of personal information need protection, so we need to evaluate and determine the types of data being transmitted or stored and ensure critical data is protected with appropriate encryption algorithms and security measures. Authentication attacks are processes with which a hacker attempts to exploit the authentication process and gain unauthorized access.
Cross-site scripts, also known as an XSS attack, is the process of injecting malicious code as part of the input to web services, usually through the browser to a different end-user. The malicious script, once injected, can access any cookies, session tokens, or sensitive information retained by the browser, or even it can masquerade the whole content of the rendered pages, XSS categorizes into server-side XSS and client-side XSS.
Cross-site request forgery, also known as CSRF, sea-surf, or XSRF, is a vulnerability that web applications expose a possibility of the end user forced by forged links, emails, HTML pages to execute unwanted actions on a currently authenticated session.
Synchronize token pattern, cookie-to-header token, double submit cookie, and client-side safeguards are common CSRF prevention methodologies. The Denial of Service is an attack intends to make the targeted machine reach its maximum load capacity to serve the requests quickly by sending numerous falsify requests, and so, the target system denies further genuine requests.
Insecure Direct Object References, or simply IDOR, is an equally harmful top API vulnerability; it occurs when an application exposes direct access to internal objects based on user inputs, such as Id, filename, and so on. Let's take an example scenario to make it clear for the readers — say Bob is using an API client and he needs to get his file with ID A Man-in-the-Middle attack is an attack from a perpetrator place in the middle of the network or communication between a genuine user and an application server.
It intends to steal, eavesdrop, impersonate, and secretly relay, intercept, or alter communications including API messages between two communicating parties, besides appear as if a normal exchange of information is underway. Replay attacks and spoofing, aka playback attacks, are network attacks in which a valid data transmissions supposed to be only one time being repeated many times maliciously by the attacker who spoofed the valid transaction and replays it as many times as they would like.
While the server is expecting a valid transaction, it will not have any doubts as those requests is a valid transaction as per the server. However, it is a masqueraded request and leads to catastrophic effects for the clients. The protection measures include a one-time password with session identifiers, TTL Time-To-Live measures MAC implementation at the client side, and including the timestamps in the request along with secure protocol such as Kerberos protocol prevention, secure routing, and Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol CHAP.
Over a million developers have joined DZone. Let's be friends:. DZone 's Guide to. Free Resource. Like Join the DZone community and get the full member experience. Join For Free. API Exposing Sensitive Data and Protection Personal information, credit card information, health records, financial information, business information, and many other categories of personal information need protection, so we need to evaluate and determine the types of data being transmitted or stored and ensure critical data is protected with appropriate encryption algorithms and security measures.
Some of the dos and don'ts of REST API security best practices are as follows: Classification of data and apply controls according to these classifications Do not store sensitive information unless necessary and discard it as soon as possible.
Use tokenization and truncation methods to prevent the exposure of sensitive data Encryption is a necessary and crucial protection measure Do not implement a cache for sensitive data or disable cache for sensitive data transactions Use salts and adaptive configurable number of iterations hashing methodologies for passwords Authentication Attacks Authentication attacks are processes with which a hacker attempts to exploit the authentication process and gain unauthorized access.
Cross-Site Scripts Cross-site scripts, also known as an XSS attack, is the process of injecting malicious code as part of the input to web services, usually through the browser to a different end-user. Denial-of-Service DoS Attack The Denial of Service is an attack intends to make the targeted machine reach its maximum load capacity to serve the requests quickly by sending numerous falsify requests, and so, the target system denies further genuine requests.
Man-in-the-Middle MITM Attack A Man-in-the-Middle attack is an attack from a perpetrator place in the middle of the network or communication between a genuine user and an application server. Replay Attacks and Spoofing Replay attacks and spoofing, aka playback attacks, are network attacks in which a valid data transmissions supposed to be only one time being repeated many times maliciously by the attacker who spoofed the valid transaction and replays it as many times as they would like.
Like This Article?Contact: support rapid7. Tools such as swagger-codegen can be used to generate an API client in the language of your choosing using this specification document. Download the specification: Download. Requests must supply authorization credentials in the Authorization header using a Base64 encoded hash of "username:password".
The token is specified using the Token request header. To leverage two-factor authentication, this must be enabled on the console and be configured for the account accessing the API. Resource names represent nouns and identify the entity being manipulated or accessed.
All collection resources are pluralized to indicate to the client they are interacting with a collection of multiple resources of the same type. Singular resource names are used when there exists only one resource available to interact with. A collection resource is a parent resource for instance resources, but can itself be retrieved and operated on independently. Collection resources use a pluralized resource name.
The resource path for collection resources follow the convention:. An instance resource is a "leaf" level resource that may be retrieved, optionally nested within a collection resource. Instance resources are usually retrievable with opaque identifiers. The resource path for instance resources follows the convention:. The general usage of the operation and both its failure and success status codes are outlined below.
The response is always a OK status. The GET operation invoked on a collection resource indicates a request to retrieve all, or some, of the entities contained within the collection. This also includes the optional capability to filter or search resources during the request. The response from a collection listing is a paginated document.
The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. Resource has a current configuration state and a default configuration state, and both of these configuration states can be represented by JSON.
The true and false literals are just fine to represent boolean values. In a few situations, however, you may want to avoid boolean values because they cannot be expanded. You may want to consider enumerations instead. It may be a poor comparison but it might help you to get the main idea of this approach: have a look at CSS properties such as overflow or visibility.
They allow expandable values instead of only true or false. So new values can be easily added without changing the property names. So, for the situation described in your question, to retrieve the default state of a resource, I would support a query parameter such as statusthat could have values such as default and current.
If no query parameter is provided, you could that the client wants the current state of the resource. If you need to restore the resource state to its default state, consider using PUTsending the new representation of the resource in the request payload.
Something like:. Learn more. Ask Question. Asked 3 years, 6 months ago. Active 7 months ago. Viewed 14k times.WordPress has certainly progressed from its early days in as one of the most sought-after blogging platforms and has become the most popular online publishing platform across the globe. Your website is precious business research, and pretty much like in real life there are anti-social elements who want to take advantage of opportunities to benefit at the expense of others.
If you have a WordPress-based website, then you must be familiar with the ease and accessibility this open source CMS offers.
However, with the constant additions to WordPress, the hackers can easily hack your website without your authorization. If you use non-plain mode, the following information appears on the WordPress website homepage:. In severe cases, sensitive data may leak. Later in WP 4. As per this vulnerability, an unauthorized user has the provision of initiating a change to the content of any post or page within a WordPress website.
If a web application is not aptly secured, it becomes a easy prey for the WP hackers to provide the content through a parameter value which tends to make changes to the content of the page. Since the page is allied with a dependable domain, the user is made to believe that a certain content, displaying on the website, is legitimate and not from any malicious source.
The illegitimate links are drafted especially with an intention to mock a login form and steal the vital information, such as login credentials. Furthermore, the user provides the links to the user through an email.
In case the user visits the page, entitled with malicious URL and the logins the account trusting that he is viewing a legitimate content, this is the opportunity a hacker is in search of to exploit the content of the user and the trust of the user.
Let us understand with the help of an example, in the image below an HTTP GET query is being sent to a test website running on the test server. As seen in the above image, the website does not run any information that is not already publicly available.
However, it returns in a particular format that can be easily interpreted and understood by the automated means. In the image below, an HTTP request is sent to get a list of posts saved on the test website. When it comes to risks, they are pretty much identical to RSS feeds. Scrapers are, usually, tech-savvy and they have all the expertise in the world to steal your content regardless of the format.
When it comes to user data, the information is personal;therefore, there is a potential risk. What is more worrying is the fact that the user has their name as the display name by default ,this further defaults into the registered username. Now, this means that the registered usernames of the website are publicly accessible, hence posing a security risk.
Mainly, for the privacy risk, probably it is a non-issue for most WordPress-based websites. But for all other websites that have to acknowledge certain privacy policies or company regulations, publicly sharing details of the users can be a significant issue. Or perhaps, your website needs to keep all the author details confidential mainly for political or legal reasons. For security risk, the importance and the intensity of the issue are debatable.
Generally, the hackers only require two things to gain access to your website —. Instead of guessing the correct username and the password, now all the hackers need to do is to guess the password. Which, as a matter of fact, for various user accounts is like a walk in the park. Using this vulnerability, some hacking groups have defaced various companies. In case your website gets hacked and falls prey to this exploit, then you will be showcased unapproved messages by your brand. Defacement campaigns are considered the easiest attacks performed by hackers on vulnerable websites.
By initiating some changes to the meta details of the pages, they can significantly change the SERP of your website. In addition to defacement campaigns, there are various other ways in which the hackers are exploiting this vulnerability.From banks, retail and transportation to IoT, autonomous vehicles and smart cities, APIs are a critical part of modern mobile, SaaS and web applications and can be found in customer-facing, partner-facing and internal applications.
By nature, APIs expose application logic and sensitive data such as Personally Identifiable Information PII and because of this have increasingly become a target for attackers. Without secure APIs, rapid innovation would be impossible.
APIs tend to expose endpoints that handle object identifiers, creating a wide attack surface Level Access Control issue. Object level authorization checks should be considered in every function that accesses a data source using an input from the user. Looking forward to generic implementations, developers tend to expose all object properties without considering their individual sensitivity, relying on clients to perform the data filtering before displaying it to the user.
Not only can this impact the API server performance, leading to Denial of Service DoSbut also leaves the door open to authentication flaws such as brute force. Complex access control policies with different hierarchies, groups, and roles, and an unclear separation between administrative and regular functions, tend to lead to authorization flaws.
Binding client provided data e. Either guessing objects properties, exploring other API endpoints, reading the documentation, or providing additional object properties in request payloads, allows attackers to modify object properties they are not supposed to.
Security misconfiguration is commonly a result of unsecure default configurations, incomplete or ad-hoc configurations, open cloud storage, misconfigured HTTP headers, unnecessary HTTP methods, permissive Cross-Origin resource sharing CORSand verbose error messages containing sensitive information.
APIs tend to expose more endpoints than traditional web applications, making proper and updated documentation highly important. Proper hosts and deployed API versions inventory also play an important role to mitigate issues such as deprecated API versions and exposed debug endpoints. Insufficient logging and monitoring, coupled with missing or ineffective integration with incident response, allows attackers to further attack systems, maintain persistence, pivot to more systems to tamper with, extract, or destroy data.
Most breach studies demonstrate the time to detect a breach is over days, typically detected by external parties rather than internal processes or monitoring. This is the best place to introduce yourself, ask questions, suggest and discuss any topic that is relevant to the project. The latest changes are under the develop branch. Ready to contribute directly into the repo?
Just make sure you read the How to Contribute guide. Paulo A. SilvaRui Silva. API Excessive Data Exposure Looking forward to generic implementations, developers tend to expose all object properties without considering their individual sensitivity, relying on clients to perform the data filtering before displaying it to the user.
API Broken Function Level Authorization Complex access control policies with different hierarchies, groups, and roles, and an unclear separation between administrative and regular functions, tend to lead to authorization flaws. API Security Misconfiguration Security misconfiguration is commonly a result of unsecure default configurations, incomplete or ad-hoc configurations, open cloud storage, misconfigured HTTP headers, unnecessary HTTP methods, permissive Cross-Origin resource sharing CORSand verbose error messages containing sensitive information.
API Improper Assets Management APIs tend to expose more endpoints than traditional web applications, making proper and updated documentation highly important. Feel free to open or solve an issue.
Mar 27, A translation for Brazilian Portuguese released. Watch Star. The OWASP Foundation works to improve the security of software through its community-led open source software projects, hundreds of chapters worldwide, tens of thousands of members, and by hosting local and global conferences.As abundant of the software and application development companies are shifting to the APIs, the danger of security breaches has enhanced to a great extent.
This is because of the circumstance APIs serve as the entries to the sensitive customer data and applications. APIs make it simple for the systems to rapidly integrate into the applications. The main thing to note here is that the APIs are frequently unprotected and can be vulnerable to various threats. The weakest point in the API can reveal backend server appliances, customer data and monetary systems to the unauthorized users, thereby putting the API as well as business at risk.
Risk In API. Because of using web technologies over the internet, APIs fall to encounter the security issues. Most of the conventional risks of the web applications and websites are applicable to the APIs.
However, because of the unique nature of API, they further enlarge the attack area surface. In basic, based on how weak the API has been developed, it could be hazardously exposed back-end architecture, back-end application and back-end data to hacks and deliver easy clues to link attack vectors. When compared to web applications, it is possible to allow bulk data transfer easily with the APIs. The risks postured by the APIs include loss of confidentiality, availability, and integrity.
Here we listed some possible APIs threats and vulnerabilities:. These tables depict the risk exposure of the API and its potential impacts on business:. Unprotected APIs. Recent APIs include the rich client applications like Java script run with a browser and mobile applications, which connect to some form of API. Modern businesses are not considering these APIs in the security prospect and often leave them unprotected.
Thereby, these APIs includes numerous vulnerabilities. Almost all kinds of authentication, injection, encryption, configuration, access control, and other issues can possible in the APIs as like the traditional application, hence the entire kinds of testing methods that are used for the other application are applicable in the APIs.
Since APIs includes complex data structures and protocols, the security testing is difficult here. It is important to choose the effective testing strategy to analyse APIs and discover vulnerabilities for ensuring the defenses of the API. API Exploits. When it comes to securing API, it is essential to aware about the pitfalls in the contractions that can be easily exploited by the attackers. In order to secure, it is incredible to focus on strong encryption at the transport layer.
For example, Man-in-the-Middle. For initiating the encrypted communication, a web client needs an SSL certificate that requires being validated. The process of validation is not always straightforward. If there is a lack of proper planning, there could be a chance of loopholes in the potential certificate validation too.
If that loophole is exploited, the hackers could get the chance to use fake certificates as well as traffic interception technologies to acquire usernames, API keys, passwords and steal the data.
The main concern with this messaging protocol is its complex data layer. Since SOAP spends more time in the production stage because several systems depend on it, it is rare to involve in the security implication arrangement investigation.
Hence, it is important to ensure that SOAP is analysed when auditing security. Business Logic Flaws. Specific API calls are created to offer access to the endpoint subsets.
It offers some boundaries to the data access. However, attackers attempting all the possible calls and routes to acquire the data. Exploiting the business logic flaws is one of the most common methods of attackers to achieve this. A few example enterprises that encounter these attacks are Nokia, Facebook, and Vimeo.
Manually auditing of API can support to prevent this unintended loophole. Enforcing the principle of least privilege can also aid to prevent this attack.